Tag Archives: Autism

Resources for Families with Adults and Children with Autism

resources for adults with autism

This email was sent to me recently. I am grateful to Don at Ability Labs for sharing. I found the articles and links to be an excellent resource.

“My son, Randy, was in an accident as an adult that changed his abilities. Since our lives changed that day, I’ve spent a lot of time working with other families who have a special needs family member, including children and adults who have autism. I’m not proud to say that before I started volunteering, I hadn’t spent much time with people of any age who have ASD, so it’s truly been moving to make connections with these families. Our experiences aren’t exactly the same, but in a lot of ways, we have much in common.

“I thought it might be a good idea to add some supportive ASD-related information to my own site, and I noticed that you have a lot of great resources for those with autism (and their families) already. I don’t know if you’re looking for more of this kind of information, but if you are, this list might be worth adding to your site.

5 Pieces of Advice on Getting a Job with Aspergers or Autism\

How to Travel Stress-Free When Your Child Has Autism

How to Create the Ultimate Playroom for a Child with Autism

How to Choose a Summer Camp for Your Child with Autism

Helping Your Child with Socialization

Supporting Students with Autism: 10 Ideas for Inclusive Classrooms

Enhancing Well-Being and Happiness for People with ASD Through Fine Arts

“I think it’s great what you’re doing, supporting all individuals and families to simply enjoy life and one another’s company. It means a lot to families like mine and I encourage you to keep at it.”

Zinc to Copper Ratios in Children with Autism

treat zinc copper imbalance autism spectrum

Research and physician training protocols developed by Dr Walsh of the Walsh Research Institute for identifying mood disorders is focused on managing young teens and adults. Most physicians trained in the Walsh Protocol themselves treat adults only and not so much of the pediatric population. As a general practitioner, managing biochemical disorders and depression in all ages, I came across the below study published in 2017. This establishes that the same markers Walsh refers in assessing one of the major Biotypes in adult depression, is also confirmed to be useful in addressing symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Zinc, copper and ceruloplasmin are minerals and mineral chelators that are tested in the Walsh approach determine whether or not the Biotype of Copper Overload is contributing to the mood or behavior disorder being evaluated. Symptoms of this biotype imblance may include anxiety, irritability, depression and psychosis. In mothers who recently delivered a child, copper overload is very commonly the cause of PPD post partum depression.

In his research there is a high correlation incidence of these symptoms of the labs when zinc/copper ratio diverges from the optimal of 1.2:1. For instance, a good range for normal would be 110 of zinc and 90 of copper. If however, the ratio is reversed and copper is elevated to 110 or more and zinc is below 90 there is a liklihood that this degree of copper overload, or oxidative stress is contributing to the patients experience of depression and anxiety.

Walsh has also found this to be the case with Autistic children. In order to apply these ratios to toddlers, and establish suitable supplement dosages this study confirmed the association between these minerals and in fact, found that the 1.2/1 zinc/copper ratio to be an excellent biomarker for children with Autism Disorder AD.

In testing toddlers, it is possible to order to draw very small amounts of blood to determine these lab values. Ideally we take plasma zinc and serum copper to determine the optimal nutrient balance. This is a highly useful test and when addressing the imbalance, only small dosages of zinc and antioxidants are necessary to correct the imbalance. When these out of balance minerals are corrected, many of the behavioral disorders can be dramatically improved, giving the child and family a great deal of relief and promise for a healthy and happy childhood.

The plasma zinc/serum copper ratio as a biomarker in children with autism spectrum disorders.


El-Meshad GM, Abd El-Nabi SA, Moharam NM, Abou El-Khair MS. The plasma zinc/serum copper ratio as a biomarker in children with autism spectrum disorders. Menoufia Med J 2017;30:727-33

Link to the study may be found here

https://www.mmj.eg.net/text.asp?2017/30/3/727/218255

Objective
The aim of this study was to assess the plasma zinc (Zn)/serum copper (Cu) ratio as a biomarker in children with autism spectrum.

Background
Autism is a complex, behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significant impairments in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and restrictive, repetitive, and stereotypic patterns of behavior. The possible etiologies that precipitate autism symptoms remain controversial in many cases, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appear to be at risk for Zn deficiency, Cu toxicity, and often have low Zn/Cu ratio.

Results
Plasma Zn was decreased in patients than in controls. Serum Cu was higher in patients than in controls. Lower Zn/Cu ratio was observed in cases in comparison with controls. intelligence quotient was lower in patients than in controls. There was a correlation between age and Zn/Cu ratio, but there was no correlation between Zn/Cu ratio and BMI. There was a negative correlation between Childhood Autism Rating Scales and Zn/Cu ratio. Zn/Cu correlated negatively with some selected symptom severity in autistic children and Zn/Cu ratio.

Conclusion
Our results suggested an association between blood levels of Zn and Cu with ASD among our patients, and the Zn/Cu ratio could be considered a biomarker of ASD.

In 85% of our patients the condition presented with delayed speech, in 90% with stereotyped behavior, in 90% with loss of eye contact, and in 95% with delayed motor development. Noens et al. [20] reported that about a third to a half of individuals with autism do not develop enough natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. In our patients, 95% had delay in motor development. This is in accordance with the findings of Esposito and Venuti [21], who said that ASD patients showed a range of gross motor problems, including delays in motor milestones, abnormal muscle tone, abnormal reflexes, and postural asymmetries.

Cu is a trace element present in all tissues and is required for cellular respiration, peptide amidation, neurotransmitter biosynthesis, pigment formation, and connective tissue strength, and is a cofactor for numerous enzymes and plays an important role in central nervous system development. Cu toxicity has a powerful effect on the mind. Depending on the severity of the toxicity and the susceptibility of the person, Cu at toxic levels can affect the mind moderately or very severely [7].

In the current study, serum Cu was statistically higher in patients than in controls (P = 0.001) as the mean Cu level of children with autism was 151.6 ± 54.6 μg/dl compared with 105.4 ± 16.1 μg/dl in controls. This is in agreement with a study by Russo and deVito [25], who stated that autistic children have significantly elevated plasma levels of Cu (P = 0.0133).

In the current study, the plasma Zn/serum Cu ratio was statistically lower in patients than in controls (P < 0.001) as the mean Zn/Cu level was 0.62 ± 0.2, which was below the 0.81 cutoff of the lowest 2.5% of healthy children. Similarly, another study was carried out by Faber et al[4], who found that the mean Zn/Cu was 0.608, which was below the 0.7 cutoff of the lowest 2.5% of healthy children.

Treating oxidative stress with oxidative stressors; Ozone therapy for detoxification.

produce glutathione naturally

Oxidative stress leads to mitochondria impairment and diminished levels of protective glutathione

Autism, is a a group of neuro-developmental disorders that manifest as repetitive behavior, restricted communication and impaired social interaction.

At present, ASD Autism is the fastest growing developmental disability in the United States. Typically signs include difficulty with relationships, repetitive verbal, behavior and motor patterns, hyporeaction responses to stimulation. ASD classically arise during childhood.  The cause of autism is not agreed upon and most treatments are limited to managing behavioral abnormalities; pharmaceutical medicines given to treat the symptoms are ineffective in curing the condition. A major reason for that is there are few to no medicines that improve biochemistry of mitochondria dysfunction, glutathione deficiency and DNA transcription.

Mitochondria are organelles primarily responsible for aerobic energy production in vertebrate eukaryotic cells [8]. In addition, they also play an important role in calcium homeostasis and signaling, regulation of apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation.

Evidence of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism: Biochemical Links, Genetic-Based Associations, and Non-Energy Related Mechanisms

To counterbalance ROS toxicity and to provide cytoprotection, cells are equipped with a variety of antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH), SOD, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and β-carotene [66].

Decreased levels of other antioxidant enzymes, such as erythrocyte SOD, erythrocyte and plasma glutathione peroxidase, serum transferrin, and serum ceruloplasmin have also been described in autism [78, 79]. Importantly, a correlation between such reduced levels and loss of language skills has been established in children with ASD [79].

A number of studies have found that individuals with ASD display hallmarks of increased oxidative stress or abnormalities in redox regulation, supporting the notion of a mechanistic role for ROS in the manifestation of the autistic phenotype [7, 14, 62]. Such evidence of increased oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids has been identified in blood, urine, and post-mortem brain samples from autistic individuals [62]. For example, markers of impaired capacity for methylation and enhanced oxidative stress, such as lower S-adenosylmethionine-to-S-adenosylhomocysteine  ratios and lower redox ratios of reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), have been found in the plasma of children with ASD [73, 74].

Gu et al. found decreased activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-Stransferase, and glutamate cysteine ligase in the ASD cerebellum. In other work, supplementation with antioxidants such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine (a precursor to glutathione), coenzyme Q10, ubiquinol, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, methylcobalamin, and carnosine also improved behavioral symptoms associated with autism [122–129]. In a randomized doubleblind placebo controlled trial, a formulation of multivitamins combined with mineral supplements (containing multiple mitochondrial cofactors, vitamins, and antioxidants) improved plasma or erythrocyte levels of methylation, glutathione, oxidative stress, sulfation, ATP, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and improved overall behavior, hyperactivity, tantrums, and receptive language in children and adults with ASD [126, 127]. Trials involving other antioxidants such as the phytochemical sulforaphane and the flavonoid luteolin also improved ASD symptoms, however no metrics of oxidative stress were examined [130, 131].

Other Metabolic Targets. Folic acid is important for redox metabolism, methylation, and mitochondrial homeostasis [132, 133]. Disruption of folate receptor α activity occurs in autism due to autoantibodies and mitochondrial dysfunction and results in CNS folate deficiency [134]. Severe reductions in cerebral folate levels can lead to neurodevelopmental regression and the autism phenotype [119]. Importantly, targeted

treatment with folinic acid has been shown to partially or completely improve communication, social interaction, attention, and stereotypical ASD behavior in patients with autoantibodies to folate receptor α [135–137]. Thus, targeting various causes and effects of mitochondrial dysfunction in autism may rescue behavior and minimize the clinical manifestations of ASD.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); A genetic disorder affecting glutathione and detoxification.

autism mitochondria glutathione

Oxidative stress leads to mitochondria impairment and diminished levels of protective glutathione

Autism, is a a group of neuro-developmental disorders that manifest as repetitive behavior, restricted communication and impaired social interaction.

At present, ASD Autism is the fastest growing developmental disability in the United States. Typically signs include difficulty with relationships, repetitive verbal, behavior and motor patterns, hyporeaction responses to stimulation. ASD classically arise during childhood.  The cause of autism is not agreed upon and most treatments are limited to managing behavioral abnormalities; pharmaceutical medicines given to treat the symptoms are ineffective in curing the condition. A major reason for that is there are few to no medicines that improve biochemistry of mitochondria dysfunction, glutathione deficiency and DNA transcription.

Mitochondria are organelles primarily responsible for aerobic energy production in vertebrate eukaryotic cells [8]. In addition, they also play an important role in calcium homeostasis and signaling, regulation of apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation.

Evidence of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism: Biochemical Links, Genetic-Based Associations, and Non-Energy Related Mechanisms

To counterbalance ROS toxicity and to provide cytoprotection, cells are equipped with a variety of antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH), SOD, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and β-carotene [66].

Decreased levels of other antioxidant enzymes, such as erythrocyte SOD, erythrocyte and plasma glutathione peroxidase, serum transferrin, and serum ceruloplasmin have also been described in autism [78, 79]. Importantly, a correlation between such reduced levels and loss of language skills has been established in children with ASD [79].

A number of studies have found that individuals with ASD display hallmarks of increased oxidative stress or abnormalities in redox regulation, supporting the notion of a mechanistic role for ROS in the manifestation of the autistic phenotype [7, 14, 62]. Such evidence of increased oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids has been identified in blood, urine, and post-mortem brain samples from autistic individuals [62]. For example, markers of impaired capacity for methylation and enhanced oxidative stress, such as lower S-adenosylmethionine-to-S-adenosylhomocysteine  ratios and lower redox ratios of reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), have been found in the plasma of children with ASD [73, 74].

Gu et al. found decreased activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-Stransferase, and glutamate cysteine ligase in the ASD cerebellum. In other work, supplementation with antioxidants such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine (a precursor to glutathione), coenzyme Q10, ubiquinol, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, methylcobalamin, and carnosine also improved behavioral symptoms associated with autism [122–129]. In a randomized doubleblind placebo controlled trial, a formulation of multivitamins combined with mineral supplements (containing multiple mitochondrial cofactors, vitamins, and antioxidants) improved plasma or erythrocyte levels of methylation, glutathione, oxidative stress, sulfation, ATP, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and improved overall behavior, hyperactivity, tantrums, and receptive language in children and adults with ASD [126, 127]. Trials involving other antioxidants such as the phytochemical sulforaphane and the flavonoid luteolin also improved ASD symptoms, however no metrics of oxidative stress were examined [130, 131].

Other Metabolic Targets. Folic acid is important for redox metabolism, methylation, and mitochondrial homeostasis [132, 133]. Disruption of folate receptor α activity occurs in autism due to autoantibodies and mitochondrial dysfunction and results in CNS folate deficiency [134]. Severe reductions in cerebral folate levels can lead to neurodevelopmental regression and the autism phenotype [119]. Importantly, targeted

treatment with folinic acid has been shown to partially or completely improve communication, social interaction, attention, and stereotypical ASD behavior in patients with autoantibodies to folate receptor α [135–137]. Thus, targeting various causes and effects of mitochondrial dysfunction in autism may rescue behavior and minimize the clinical manifestations of ASD.

Dr Mercola interviews Dr Walsh; Role of nutrients for treating autism, anxiety, depression and dementia.

 

It only a matter of time before Dr Walsh and his nutritional protocol for treating mental disorders becomes mainstream. Thanks to popular health advocates such as Dr Mercola, Dr Walsh will get the exposure that is needed to wake up the medical community.

With the ever increasing ill effects on our epigenetics from the environment and the blind mis-use of medications to treat mental disorders, there is no better time than now to pay close attention to the research and perspective of Dr William Walsh in the treatment of autism, depression and all other mood and behavioral disorders.

Dr Mercola interviews Dr Walsh at a glance:

By Dr. Mercola

  • There are four biochemical types of violent people. Many have severe zinc deficiency, pyrrole disorder, low blood spermine and methylation defects — an unusual combination of bad biochemistry
  • While there are hundreds of nutrients that are important for health, in the brain, six or seven dominate. These are nutrients that are either involved in synthesis or functioning of neurotransmitters
  • Nutrients that have a powerful influence on mental health include zinc, copper, B-6, selenium, folates and S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe)

Can you use specific nutrients to improve your mental health? Yes, you can. William Walsh, Ph.D., president of the nonprofit Walsh Research Institute in Naperville, Illinois, and author of “Nutrient Power: Heal Your Biochemistry and Heal Your Brain,” specializes in nutrient-based psychiatry and nutritional medicine.

He and I are both  fellows of the American College of Nutrition. He’s designed nutritional programs for Olympic athletes, NBA players and major league baseball players. More importantly, he’s spent a great deal of his career seeking to improve mental health through nutrition.

“I started off in the hard science. I was an experimentalist,” Walsh says. “I worked, in the beginning, in the nuclear field … with places like Los Alamos, the Institute for Atomic Research and University of Michigan Research Institute. I wound up at Argonne National Laboratory. While working as a scientist there, I started a volunteer project at the local prison, Stateville Penitentiary.

I eventually got really interested in why people were violent …  [W]hen we started the ex-offender program, I got to meet the families that had produced a criminal. I found some wonderful families, caring and capable families, that have other children who turned out just fine …

I began to realize we didn’t understand why people had bad behavior. We then asked the question, ‘Could it be something related to their brain chemistry or the body chemistry?’… I started doing lab studies of their blood, their urine and hair. I found out that they were very, very different from the rest of the population. That’s how I got started.”

Biochemistry and the Criminal Brain

Walsh received valuable direction after meeting Dr. Carl Pfeiffer, who was doing work on heavy metals and schizophrenia. As it turns out, levels of metals, including copper, zinc and manganese, were all abnormal in criminals compared to the general population.

Walsh discovered four biochemical types of violent people. One of these was the sociopaths, all of whom had severe zinc deficiency, pyrrole disorder, low blood spermine and undermethylation. In all, it’s an unusual combination of bad biochemistry. A collaborative investigation with Pfeiffer resulted in nutrient therapies for each of the behavior types.

Pyrrole disorder is a stress condition commonly found in brain disorders. A urine test developed by niacin expert Abram Hoffer and Pfeiffer is the gold standard test for this genetic condition, which involves altered  biochemistry in your bone marrow and spleen.

People who have pyrrole disorder may produce five to 10 times more pyrroles than normal — a byproduct of natural reactions, like the formation of hemoglobin. While harmless in and of itself, pyrroles bind to and draw out anything that is an aldehyde, such as B-6. It also sharply depletes zinc.

As a result, people with pyrroles disorder have exceptionally low levels of B-6, and zinc which can have serious effects on brain function, affecting their memory and ability to read, for example. B-6 deficiency is quite common among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well.

The Earlier the Treatment the Better the Results

“Eventually, [Pfeiffer] and I jointly evaluated 500 patients, mostly violent adults and violent children. We got our best results with the kids, young people with the same kind of chemistry, who were mostly very violent,” Walsh says.

“I have to say we didn’t really succeed in finding a way to help the adult criminals. They would get better for six to eight months, and then I’d find out they were back in prison. That had a lot to do with the fact that they were abusing alcohol and illegal drugs … At about 1990, we decided to focus on children …

It’s been very successful. If we can get a child before their lives are ruined, before they pass puberty perhaps, our success rate [is] very high … The doctors report a striking improvement in behavior. Most of these kids, of course, [are] on drugs, everything from Ritalin to powerful antipsychotic  medications. Usually when we’re finished and [have] balanced their chemistry, they can wean off the medication. They usually are fine without it …”

Nutrients Involved in Synthesis or Functioning of Neurotransmitters Dictate Mental Function

Later on, Walsh expanded to also include children with autism and ADHD. Fond of numbers, Walsh began amassing enormous databases. At present, he has one of the world’s largest chemistry database for autismdepression and behavior disorders.

“When you look at these millions of chemical analyses of blood, urine and tissues, it’s obvious that there are very great differences,” he says. “I found that for mental disorders, about six or seven chemical imbalances dominate mental function. There are hundreds and hundreds of important nutrients in the body, but in the brain, there are about six or seven that [seem] to dominate everything. Eventually, I found out why …

[T]hese are the nutrient factors that are either involved in synthesis of a neurotransmitter or the functioning of a neurotransmitter. They include methylation — undermethylation or overmethylation. In our database, 70 percent of all humans in the United States have normal, typical methylation; 22 percent are undermethylated … 8 percent are overmethylated.

About 70 percent of all people who have a mental disorder have one of these methylation disorders. The symptoms are completely different, and the treatment they need is completely different. We also found that most people [who have mental disorders] are depleted or deficient in zinc. That’s the most common [deficiency] we see … Virtually everyone with a mental disorder seems to need zinc and improve on it.”

Copper Overload Linked to Autism, Schizophrenia and Postpartum Depression

Copper is another important trace metal, as it plays a distinct role in the synthesis of norepinephrine, a major neurotransmitter. Divalent copper (Cu2+) is a dramatic factor in the ratio of dopamine and norepinephrine. Read more here…

The Importance of Methylation and Folates in Mental Health

Walsh was among the first people to alert the world to the importance of methylation in mental health, especially autism. The No. 1 causes of undermethylation are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or mutations in the enzymes for the one-carbon cycle (the methylation cycle).base. The largest phenotype … is undermethylation. Read more here…

Changing the Face of Psychiatry

Walsh is convinced the use of psychiatric medication will eventually fade away as we learn more about normalizing brain function through nutritional interventions. “These powerful drugs … they do not normalize the brain. They cause an abnormal condition,” he warns. “They might correct depression or anxiety, but you wind up with something that’s not normal.”

The Walsh Research Institute is a public charity with no financial interests, and they are slowly but surely helping to change mainstream psychiatry. Walsh has given talks at the highest levels, including the Surgeon General’s office, the U.S. Senate and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). He’s also spoken at American Psychiatric Association (APA) annual meetings several times.

“The last time I went there, they finally listened to me … I was there about two and a half years ago. I gave an invited talk on depression. I basically explained to them they’re doing depression wrong. They actually listened to me. I showed them our huge chemistry database and explained that depression is a name given to at least five completely different disorders, each involving different symptoms and each involving different neurotransmitters that are malfunctioning.

Then I described each one of these biotypes and actually showed them that if they would simply do some inexpensive blood and urine testing, they could identify which people would be good candidates for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or which ones would do better on benzodiazepine, but even more importantly, how they can correct it with nutrients.”

There were 17,000 psychiatrists at this meeting from all over the world, and Walsh was 1 of 4 speakers at a well-attended session. Afterward, there was tremendous demand for more information, which gives hope. Walsh also offers a training program for doctors. In the U.S., 45 psychiatrists went through the program last year. In all, 500 physicians and psychiatrists in 32 countries have taken his program so far.

Full Transcript at Dr Mercola’s Website

To learn more about Dr Walsh, visit www.WalshInstitute.org. There you can also purchase Walsh’s book, “Nutrient Power: Heal Your Biochemistry and Heal Your Brain.” Questions and information requests can be sent to Dana@WalshInstitute.org, or you can call (630) 506-5066.

“Our website has a resources section that recommends quality labs, compounding pharmacies and a list of doctors who we’ve trained, who are now able to do this kind of therapy,” Walsh says.

Copper Overload Linked to Autism, Schizophrenia and Postpartum Depression

Autism is particularly susceptible to copper overload and the effect on dopamine and norepinephrine  levels.

In his recent interview with Dr Mercola, Dr Walsh discusses copper, an important trace metal, that plays a distinct role in the synthesis of norepinephrine, a major neurotransmitter. Free copper impacts the levels of dopamine by causing this

Dopamine neurotransmitter is synthesized by humans and animals from L-Dopa in the kidneys and brain. It is also produced in plants.  This neurotransmitter is associated with the reward center, affecting desire, motivation craving for reward, associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).  It also manages aspects of motor control and in controlling the release of various hormones.

Norepinephrine is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine by a series of enzymatic steps in the adrenal medulla and postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system. While the conversion of tyrosine to dopamine occurs predominantly in the cytoplasm, the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine by dopamine β-monooxygenase occurs predominantly inside neurotransmitter vesicles. The metabolic pathway is:

Phenylalanine → Tyrosine → L-DOPA → Dopamine → Norepinephrine

Broadly speaking, the effect of norepinephrine on each target organ is via the symptathetic nervous system for the purpose of of making the body more conducive to active movement, often at a cost of increased energy use and increased wear and tear. Known as the “fight or flight” neurotransmitter it can be contrasted with the acetylcholine-mediated effects of the parasympathetic nervous system, which modifies most of the same organs into a state more conducive to rest, recovery, and digestion of food, and usually less costly in terms of energy expenditure.

Elevated levels of unbound, ‘free copper’ (copper overload) have a direct effect on the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine. The consequence is lower levels of the reward center and increase levels of stress and anxiety. 

“It all has to do with an enzyme called metallothionein that is genetically expressed. Some people don’t have that system working,” Walsh explains. “These persons have copper overload, which we find virtually in every autistic patient, most patients with schizophrenia and almost everyone with postpartum depression.

That’s a recipe for very high norepinephrine — which means anxiety and depression — and low dopamine (a feel-good neurotransmitter), which is a hallmark of ADHD … a nasty combination.

We find the sociopaths innately have low copper levels. People who have undermethylation tend to have low normal copper levels … The good news for mental disorders is that there are more than 100 really important biochemicals in the body, but only a few dominate mental disorders.

If we had to do lab testing for 100 of them, it would be really difficult. If we had to adjust the levels of these and normalize 100 different factors, it would make life very difficult. But we found that by just focusing on maybe seven or eight nutrient factors, we could help 95 percent of the patients we see with nutrient therapy.”

How to Measure Your Zinc and Copper Status

Zinc experts typically agree that plasma zinc provides the most accurate measurement. The taste test has some minor value but is among the least reliable. To accurately measure copper, serum copper is the way to go, and most labs throughout the world provide good copper assays.

Walsh recommends doing a ceruloplasmin test at the same time, because then you can determine how much free radical copper you have, which gives you a good indication of your level of oxidative stress. A high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) test would also be useful as a marker of inflammation.

“By the way, oxidative stress runs through every single mental disorder we see, without exception,” Walsh says. “Every one of them seems to have extraordinary oxidative stress — schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, a violent child or an autistic child.”

Unfortunately, our modern lifestyle strongly promotes oxidative stress, with processed foods, processed vegetable oils, excessive net carbs and excessive protein being some of the most potent factors. This kind of diet causes a reduction in ketones and a radical increase in reactive oxygen species and secondary free radicals.

Exposure to non-native electromagnetic fieldsglyphosate and other pesticides, fluoride-contaminated water and other toxic exposures only add to the problem. Typically, copper and ceruloplasmin levels tend to go hand in hand, being either high or low together. The ideal level for copper, with respect to mental health, is somewhere between 75 and 100 micrograms per deciliter (mcg/dL) in serum. The ideal amount of ceruloplasmin has to do with whatever your level of copper is.

Ideally, the percentage of copper in your ceruloplasmin should be around 85 to 90 percent. “It’s really great to do both simultaneously, because then you have a really good picture of not only the copper situation, but also the level of oxidative stress,” Walsh says.

Heavy Metals and the Autistic Brain

Walsh has tested 6,500 autistic patients. As a group, they have much higher toxic metal levels than their siblings or the general population. Walsh believes their toxic burden is likely due to an inborn predisposition that makes them more likely to accumulate toxins and/or vulnerable to the effects of toxins.

“Thousands of these parents, maybe more than half, told a very sad story of how they had a child who was developing normally, was beginning to speak and was singing and charming their grandparents. Then maybe the child got sick.

They took him to a pediatrician and the pediatrician — I’ve heard this story hundreds of times — said, ‘Oh, you’re behind on your shots. You’re behind on your vaccinations.’ They took a sick child and gave them multiple vaccinations, at that time, with thimerosal and mercury.

Hundreds of these families said that within a day or two, their child changed forever. Lost all speech, the personality changed, they became sick. They became intolerant to served foods. They were just very troubled little human beings.

When they went to specialists, eventually they wound up with the diagnosis of autism and were told that it was incurable and that there was no hope really for recovery. We’ve seen a lot of human misery just talking with these families. It’s just a shocking and terrible thing.”

Walsh suspects autistic children have an insufficiency of natural antioxidants such as glutathione and metallothionein, rendering them more vulnerable to the effects of environmental exposures, including vaccines and poor diet. It’s worth noting that 1 in 3 children diagnosed with autism does not have true autism caused by epigenetic variations.

Many of these children have a good chance of recovery, whereas classic Kanner autism is a permanent, life-long epigenetic condition (named after Leo Kanner, who discovered autism in the 1940s1), although some measure of improvement can be made even in these cases.

Metallothionein Promotion Nutrient Therapy for Autism

The fact that autistic children tend to have extraordinary copper and zinc imbalances means their metallothionein protein is not functioning. Metallothionein is required for homeostatic control of copper and zinc. Walsh has developed a metallothionein promotion nutrient therapy: a formulation of 22 nutrients known to enhance genetic expression and function of metallothionein. This protocol has been used on more than 2,000 autistic patients, with measurable improvements in outcome.

“The most important antioxidants in the brain are somewhat different than the rest of the body. I call them the three musketeers. It’s glutathione, metallothionein and selenium. It’s specific to the brain,” he explains.

Technically, selenium is not an antioxidant per se, but it does increase glutathione levels and enhances the function of metallothionein and, in the brain, glutathione and metallothionein work together. Glutathione is your first line of defense. The problem is, autistic children typically have a poor diet (it’s hard to get them to eat anything) and with the oxidative overload, they quickly run out of glutathione. When you run low on glutathione in your brain, your metallothionein level increases.

“Metallothionein doesn’t work unless you have oxidized glutathione. It’s a hand in glove situation. It’s the backup system for glutathione in the brain, and we know that without selenium, that whole system doesn’t work well,” Walsh explains.

I take selenium every day. It’s a trace mineral, so you don’t need much, up to about 200 mcg per day, and you definitely need to be mindful not to overdose. As noted by Walsh, of all the trace metals, selenium has the narrowest division between deficiency and overload, so you need to be careful when supplementing.

Zinc also needs to be normalized, as it is the No. 1 factor for enabling metallothionein to function and support glutathione. According to Walsh, for mental and physical health, you need a plasma zinc level between 90 and 130 mcg/dL. Many mental patients have a genetic weakness in zinc normalization; they’re born with zinc deficiency, and need far higher amounts than typical to maintain a healthy zinc level.

On Thimerosal

Walsh has also investigated the thimerosal issue, looking for evidence of mercury toxicity in the brains of autistic children. In fact, he was the first person to actually measure mercury in autistic brains.

He was able to receive brain tissue samples from Johns Hopkins, and using the Argonne facility called the Advanced Photon Source, he did over 1 million chemical analyses on brain tissue from autistic and non-autistic children. Every autistic child analyzed had received thimerosal-containing vaccinations.

However, no mercury could be found in the brain tissue. One explanation for this is that the tests were done years after the vaccinations. The half-life of mercury in the human body is 42 days. The half-life of ethyl or methyl mercury in the brain is 70 days.

“I think what it amounts to is that mercury is a terrible poison. It’s a terrible insult,” he says. “I think these vulnerable kids should never be exposed to it. However, it doesn’t stay in the body and it doesn’t do continuing damage. I think after a year or so, it has left the body, even though there are tens of thousands of families who are trying therapies that will take the mercury out of their child’s brain when it’s no longer there.”

Signs and Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders

An summary of characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Provided by helpguide.org

In both children and adults, the signs and symptoms of the autism spectrum disorders include problems with social skills, speech and language, and restricted activities and interests. However, there are enormous differences when it comes to the severity of the symptoms, their combinations, and the patterns of behavior.

Keep in mind that just because your child has a few autism-like symptoms, it doesn’t mean he or she has an autism spectrum disorder. The autism spectrum disorders are diagnosed based on the presence of multiple symptoms that disrupt your child’s ability to communicate, form relationships, explore, play, and learn.

Where does your child fall on the autism spectrum?

The three autism spectrum disorders share many of the same symptoms, but they differ in their severity and impact. Classic autism, or autistic disorder, is the most severe of the autism spectrum disorders.  Milder variants are Asperger’s Syndrome, sometimes called high-functioning autism, and PDD-NOS, or atypical autism. According to the Autism Spectrum Resource Center, only 20% of people on the autism spectrum have classic autism. The overwhelming majority fall somewhere on the milder range of the spectrum.

Since the autism spectrum disorders share many similar symptoms, it can be difficult to distinguish one from the other, particularly in the early stages. If your child is developmentally delayed or exhibits other autism-like behaviors, you will need to visit a medical professional for a thorough evaluation. Your doctor can help you figure out where, or even if, your child fits on the autistic spectrum.

Signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders: Social skills

Basic social interaction can be difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders. Symptoms may include:

  • Unusual or inappropriate body language, gestures, and facial expressions (e.g. avoiding eye contact or using facial expressions that don’t match what he or she is saying).
  • Lack of interest in other people or in sharing interests or achievements (e.g. showing you a drawing, pointing to a bird).
  • Unlikely to approach others or to pursue social interaction; comes across as aloof and detached; prefers to be alone.
  • Difficulty understanding other people’s feelings, reactions, and nonverbal cues.
  • Resistance to being touched.
  • Difficulty or failure to make friends with children the same age.

Signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders: Speech and language

Problems with speech and language comprehension are a telltale sign of the autism spectrum disorders. Symptoms may include:

  • Delay in learning how to speak (after the age of 2) or doesn’t talk at all.
  • Speaking in an abnormal tone of voice, or with an odd rhythm or pitch.
  • Repeating words or phrases over and over without communicative intent.
  • Trouble starting a conversation or keeping it going.
  • Difficulty communicating needs or desires.
  • Doesn’t understand simple statements or questions.
  • Taking what is said too literally, missing humor, irony, and sarcasm.

Signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders: Restricted behavior and play

Children with autism spectrum disorders are often restricted, rigid, and even obsessive in their behaviors, activities, and interests. Symptoms may include:

  • Repetitive body movements (hand flapping, rocking, spinning); moving constantly.
  • Obsessive attachment to unusual objects (rubber bands, keys, light switches).
  • Preoccupation with a specific topic of interest, often involving numbers or symbols (maps, license plates, sports statistics).
  • A strong need for sameness, order, and routines (e.g. lines up toys, follows a rigid schedule). Gets upset by change in their routine or environment.
  • Clumsiness, abnormal posture, or odd ways of moving.
  • Fascinated by spinning objects, moving pieces, or parts of toys (e.g. spinning the wheels on a race car, instead of playing with the whole car).

How children with autism spectrum disorders play

Children with autism spectrum disorders tend to be less spontaneous than other kids. Unlike a typical curious little kid pointing to things that catch his or her eye, autistic children often appear disinterested or unaware of what’s going on around them. They also show differences in the way they play. They may have trouble with functional play, or using toys that have a basic intended use, such as toy tools or cooking set.  They usually don’t “play make-believe,” engage in group games, imitate others, or use their toys in creative ways.

Related signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders

While not part of autism’s official diagnostic criteria, children with autism spectrum disorders often suffer from one or more of the following problems:

  • Sensory problems – Many children with autism spectrum disorders either underreact or overreact to sensory stimuli. At times they may ignore people speaking to them, even to the point of appearing deaf. However, at other times they may be disturbed by even the softest sounds. Sudden noises such as a ringing telephone can be upsetting, and they may respond by covering their ears and making repetitive noises to drown out the offending sound. Children on the autism spectrum also tend to be highly sensitive to touch and to texture. They may cringe at a pat on the back or the feel of certain fabric against their skin.
  • Emotional difficulties – Children with autism spectrum disorders may have difficulty regulating their emotions or expressing them appropriately. For instance, your child may start to yell, cry, or laugh hysterically for no apparent reason. When stressed, he or she may exhibit disruptive or even aggressive behavior (breaking things, hitting others, or harming him or herself). The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities also notes that autistic kids may be unfazed by real dangers like moving vehicles or heights, yet be terrified of harmless objects such as a stuffed animal.
  • Uneven cognitive abilities – The autism spectrum disorders occur at all intelligence levels. However, even kids with normal to high intelligence often have unevenly developed cognitive skills. Not surprisingly, verbal skills tend to be weaker than nonverbal skills. In addition, children with Autism spectrum disorders typically do well on tasks involving immediate memory or visual skills, while tasks involving symbolic or abstract thinking are more difficult.

Assessing Cause and Treating Autistic Kids and Autism Spectrum Adults

Holistic treatment autism spectrum

Focus on detoxification, immune status and brain biochemistry
A leaky gut syndrome is an inflammatory condition in the digestive track often brought on by allergies to foods such as dairy and wheat. It is also prominent with kids and adults that have elevated yeast or candida. This is either diet related, immune related or has to do with an imbalance of probiotics. The consequence is that toxins, brain toxins leak out of the digestive tract and affect the brain cells. The natural antioxidants that prevent this consequence of leaky gut includes glutathione. To correct leaky gut we test the conditions of the stool and improve the status of digestive enzymes, probiotics, HCL and status of candida.

Casein, Gluten and Autism
According to researchers from Penn State a gluten-free, casein-free diet may lead to improvements in behavior and physiological symptoms in children diagnosed with ASD.

“Research has shown that children with ASD commonly have GI [gastrointestinal] symptoms,” said Christine Pennesi, medical student at Penn State College of Medicine. “Notably, a greater proportion of our study population reported GI and allergy symptoms than what is seen in the general pediatric population. Some experts have suggested that gluten- and casein-derived peptides cause an immune response in children with ASD, and others have proposed that the peptides could trigger GI symptoms and behavioral problems.”

“Gluten and casein seem to be the most immunoreactive,” Klein said. “A child’s skin and blood tests for gluten and casein allergies can be negative, but the child still can have a localized immune response in the gut that can lead to behavioral and psychological symptoms. When you add that in with autism you can get an exacerbation of effects.”

“If parents are going to try a gluten-free, casein-free diet with their children, they really need to stick to it in order to receive the possible benefits,” she said.

naturally remove metals

Metallothionein and Autism – MT Therapy
In October of 2001, a team of clinicians and researchers led by William Walsh, Ph.D. then at the Pheiffer Treatment Center, affiliated with the Health Research Institute now of Warrenville, IL, made available a scientific study entitled “Metallothionein and Autism”. Metallothionein is a protein that is critical to the process of detoxification of harmful substances, particularly heavy metals and toxic chemicals.
The paper describes a study of 503 patients on the autism spectrum vs. aged-matched non-autistic patients. The conclusion of this study was that “most autistic patients exhibit evidence of metallothionein (MT) dysfunction and this dysfunction may be a universal characteristic of autism-spectrum disorders”.
Correcting an impaired detoxification system in ASD autistic children.
William Walsh PhD believes that “MT dysfunction and autism may result from the intersection of two factors: (a) a genetic defect involving marginal or defective MT functioning, followed by (b) an environmental insult during early development which disables MT.”

Dr David Epstein D.O., Medical Director at Second Opinion Physician studied under William Walsh and received certification in applying the Walsh Protocol to autistic kids and autistic adults. The focus of therapy is based on a standard set of labs that are ordered for children to identify and correct biochemical factors that disable MT proteins. These include (a) severe zinc depletion, (b) abnormalities in the glutathione redox system, (c) cysteine deficiency, and (d) malfunction of metal regulating elements (MRE’s).”

Glutathione is a key amino acid in the role of detoxifying the cells of the those on the autistic spectrum including those with aspergers symptoms. It is a product of metabolism in the methionine cycle. With autistics there are very low to no levels of glutathione produced. Low levels lead to other processes that include the dysfunction of methylation and sulfation.

The treatment protocol at Second Opinion Physician for autistic kids and adults on the spectrum recognizes the importance of the Walsh panel for brain function performance assessment. Correction is based on the restoration of the detoxification pathways for removing metals, strengthening the immune system, repair of the gut and brain cells, regulation of zinc and copper levels in the blood and prevention of yeast overgrowth.
The tests include identifying methylation status. Impaired methylation impairs suflation. Sulfation improves the digestive tract, brain function and connective tissues of the body. It also facilitates the production of glutathione and prevents cellular breakdown by removing toxic metals from within the cell.

Second Opinion Physician tests for ASD autistic disorder include the following:
1. Histamine for determining methylation status
2. Zinc and copper levels to identify degree of oxidative stress due to reactive metals causing free radical toxicity.
3. Ceruloplasmin – a copper metallothionein that neutralizes the oxidative effects of copper and other metals.
4. Urinary pyrroles – inflammatory element that depletes the body of B6 and zinc, both critical to brain function
5. Testing for Casein and Gluten allergies
6. CDSA comprehensive digestive stool analysis for evidence of yeast overgrowth, probiotic status and digestive capacity.
7. Vitamin D levels to determine need to supplement for immune improvement

Based on results from tests and historical assessment, Second Opinion Physician natural health care plan will likely include one or more supplement strategies:
1. Correcting methylation imbalance either through slowing down or increasing methylation
2. Improving MT status with a blend of amino acids with high sulfur. The formula was made available to Walsh-Certified physicians.
3. Restoring gut health with sulfur through sulfur containing amino acids and MSM.
4. Diet modification with casein free casein free diet to eliminate allergens
5. Replace probiotics and control candida yeast
6. Supplement with methionine and B12 for undermethylated ASD children
7. Increase zinc and lower copper with supplementation of proper dose and form of trace minerals.
8. Managing pyrrole disorder with B6 and zinc when tests warrant.
9. Vitamin D supplementation

The Epigenetic Theory of Autism

Autistic Children Natural Therapies

 

The following was taken from an intereview with Dr Walsh by Dan E Burns and his excellent website, the Age of Autism. If you like this article, please visit his website.

Autism: Tornado in the Brain

By William Walsh and Dan E. Burns

“It’s becoming quite clear to more and more of us that autism is not genetic, but epigenetic.” So says William J. Walsh, who received a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Iowa State University and is an expert in nutritional medicine. In the 1970s, he collaborated with the renowned Dr. Carl Pfeiffer, a pioneer in schizophrenia research, and went on to develop nutrient protocols to normalize brain chemistry in patients with behavioral and personality disorders, schizophrenia, and autism. Walsh’s new book, Nutrient Power, is subtitled Heal Your Biochemistry and Heal Your Brain.

I asked Bill what has happened in autism research since the late 1980s when he became associated with Dr. Rimland, founder of the Autism Research Institute. Here’s what he told me.

BILL: “When I first connected with Bernie, a wonderful inspiring man, he realized that I’d seen more autistic patients than anybody in the world, eventually six thousand five hundred. More importantly, I had the world’s biggest chemistry database for autism. I’d already organized a prison volunteer program to study the biology of prisoners and ex-offenders, researching the causes of their violent behavior. And the first thing Bernie and I realized was that autistic children – ASD spectrum kids – have far more severe chemistry, lab results farther outside the normal range, than criminals.

“Bernie asked me to come to some of his think tanks and give information. No one was surprised when I reported that ASD kids had B6 deficiency and elevated toxic metals, especially mercury, cadmium, and lead, plus high copper and low zinc. The surprise was that more than 95% of kids who had autism were undermethylated. Following that think tank, Jon Pangborn launched a study of how disruptions in the methylation cycle are consistent with ASD symptoms. Eminent methylation scientists Jill James and Richard Deth took up the challenge. We now know that undermethylation is a distinctive feature of ASD.”

Dan: Why did you develop the Epigenetic Theory?

BILL: “In the history of science, progress has often been hastened by the development of theories that attempt to explain the mechanisms of poorly understood phenomena. Then, over time, as new information comes in, the model can be honed and improved. We needed a new theory to account for the effect of environmental toxins on gene expression. That’s why I developed the epigenetic theory of autism.”

DAN: What’s the difference between genetics and epigenetics? My understanding is that genetic theories of autism have not been very helpful to date.

BILL: “That’s right. Genetic therapies – trying to change DNA that’s gone awry in kids, with Down Syndrome, for example – have been a washout. They haven’t led to much of anything. But the early research on altering epigenetic deviations has been really promising. And I think that’s the hope for the future.”

DAN: So what is epigenetics?

“Epigenetics is the natural process of gene regulation that is established in the early days of gestation in the womb. A severe environmental insult later in life can either turn off a necessary gene or turn on a damaging gene, resulting in a disorder that can persist for years.

“We know that autism runs in families but violates classical laws of genetics. We know that in identical twins, if one of them develops autism, it’s more than sixty percent likely that the other will too. However, it’s not a hundred percent; so it’s not the DNA, not the genome. That means that environmental insults must be involved.”

DAN: How can environmental insults lead to autism without altering the genome?

BILL: “A gene has only one job, and that’s to make a protein. We have identical DNA and identical genes – the same cookbook – in every cell of our body, but every tissue in our body needs a different combination of proteins. How to make that happen? Methyl groups, which are basically groups of carbon atoms with some hydrogen attached, act like bookmarks. They tell our metabolism where to start reading the cookbook and where to stop. Methyl groups attach to certain parts of DNA to regulate whether a gene is turned on or turned off. So they program the DNA and determine which proteins are expressed in each tissue.”

DAN: It reminds me of an old-fashioned player piano. The piano is your DNA, and the scroll is your epigenome. The holes in the scroll determine which string is played or “expressed,” so you can play “Johnny B. Goode” or a Bach cantata by changing the scrolls.

BILL: “Yes. You can program the tune – the cell – without changing the DNA.”

DAN: But how does this epigenetic theory explain children who appear to be normal at birth but regress in their second year? Have you seen that happen?

BILL: “I’ve seen probably five thousand children who had a normal beginning in life, and around age 18 to 24 months had the very nasty sudden regression when autism onset came. I believe that altered epigenetics in the womb causes weakened protection against oxidative stress. And it’s pretty clear that somewhere between conception and age three, there was an environmental insult that just overwhelmed their anti-oxidant protectors and shuffled the epigenetic bookmarks, resulting in deviant gene expression. The trigger may be prenatal, postnatal, or cumulative (both). Here’s my epigenetic model in a nutshell:

  1. Undermethylation in the womb causes overexpression of several genes, weakened protection against oxidative stress, and increased vulnerability to environmental insults.
  2. Environmental insults, which can include mercury, lead, cadmium, viruses, or other sources, reach a tipping point and overwhelm natural antioxidant protectors, reshuffling epigenetic bookmarks and altering gene expression.
  3. Altered gene expression results in abnormal brain development, a tendency for serious brain inflammation, and physical problems including weakened immunity, sensitivity to toxins and certain foods, tendency to seizures, and poor behavior control. The Epigenetic Model of Autism is explained in more detail on pages 110-111 of my book Nutrient Power.”

DAN: In your AutismOne presentation, you said that mercury does its damage in 30 seconds. That would make it like a tornado, sweeping in and out of Moore, Oklahoma, and leaving devastation behind. Am I remembering that right? Please explain.

BILL: “When mercury enters the brain, it quickly undergoes chemical reaction with substances in the brain. A large amount of mercury can cause great damage, especially in the developing brain of a young child. This is a leading suspect in the onset of regressive autism. However, in most humans, the half-life of mercury in the brain is about 70 days, and the reacted mercury may have become inert before departing the scene. Experimental evidence indicates that mercury levels in brains of the older autistic children we looked at, ages 5-11, were not seriously high. A mercury insult may well have triggered autism in many children, but it appears this early mercury has left the body and cannot cause continuing harm. The problem is that epigenetic changes survive cell division, so the autism conditions can persist a lifetime, even after the mercury is gone. After a tornado, there may be great destruction but the problem is no longer the tornado but the damage that it caused. The same may be true for environmental insults like mercury.”

DAN: Shouldn’t our children get better? Aren’t old, damaged brain cells replaced, eventually, by new ones, as mercury leaves the brain?

BILL: “You’re asking about the greatest mystery of autism – Why in stubborn cases doesn’t it go away after onset, despite the multitude of aggressive treatments that have been tried? The answer appears to be epigenetics – an environmental insult has altered gene regulation and set up misleading detour signs along the developmental pathways. The good news is that biochemical therapies and other interventions can either (a) adjust gene expression or (b) overcome the effect of altered gene expression. For example an epigenetic tendency for high oxidative stress can be effectively treated using antioxidant supplements.

“Unfortunately, autism is a developmental disorder and as the child matures, the effects of altered gene expression are cast in physiology. Autism brains are structurally different from neurotypical brains. The differences includes narrowed minicolumns in the brain’s cortex, altered connectivity between different brain areas, a reduced number of synapses, and certain brain areas that have never completed the maturation process. It’s conceivable that the developmental detour signs could someday be removed. But fixing the autism brain requires a lot more than replacing damaged brain cells. Fortunately, the brain is very plastic and brain-directed therapies have great promise.”

DAN: Can epigenetic variations be passed on?

BILL: “Yes, and that was something that was a surprise. Because we’ve known that when conception begins, the epigenetic markers from the mother and the father are supposed to be erased, and you get a new start. But now there’s clear evidence that there’s something called ‘Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance’ or TEI transference. If a father has an exposure to mercury, and that mercury changes his gene expression, which can happen, the next two generations of children are likely to have the same problem. In other words, epigenetics can pass from father to son. I like to use a quote from Deuteronomy: ‘The sins of the father will be visited upon the son.’”

DAN: What about the mother?

BILL: “The mothers are even more important if you look at the things that can cause epigenetic errors. One of them is an insufficient level of folates or folic acid in a pregnant woman. Another would be toxic metals such as mercury, lead or cadmium. We know that they can cause epigenetic errors. Under-methylation in the womb is a major factor in brain development and epigenetic errors. And those errors are heritable.”

DAN: Since lead has been removed from gasoline and from paint, and since mercury has been mostly phased out of mandated childhood vaccines (but not flu shots) beginning in the year 2000, shouldn’t autism rates be going down, not up? Why doesn’t the incidence of autism decline?

BILL: “Starting in 2005, about the time we would expect a dramatic decrease in autism incidence because of the phase-out, my colleagues and I noticed a huge increase in patients diagnosed with autism whose biochemical profiles did not match our typical chemical profile of ASD kids. Were they misdiagnosed? By the standards we were using, yes. We had to exclude them from the research studies. Clearly something new was going on here. However, we continued to see large numbers of children with severe autism throughout the period. Like many others, I was disappointed to learn that the removal of mercury from USA childhood vaccines failed to result in a dramatic decline in autism incidence.”

DAN: So what is driving the epidemic now?

BILL: “There are three points to keep in mind.

“First, as Dan Olmsted points out, the increased uptake of mercury-containing prenatal flu shots given to pregnant women appears to layer in just as the other mercury-containing shots were phasing out. Many epigenetic deviations occur around day 20, before most women know they’re pregnant. I think that’s a very serious issue.

“Second, altered epigenetics due to undermethylation persists across generations, and most great athletes, doctors, lawyers, and CEOs are undermethylated. Put undermethylated men and women together, which is inevitable in our increasingly stratified society, and that’s probably another reason why the epidemic persists.

“Third, toxic metals and viruses are not the only risk factors. Dozens of other genotoxins could potentially trigger autism in a predisposed child. Kathy Blanco has listed at least twenty five. Many of these have not been explored in depth. We need to keep an open mind and not let what we know blind us to what we don’t know. Emotion is the enemy of science and logical thought.”

DAN: Where does your epigenetic theory of autism lead us? What is your vision of the future?

BILL: “Not too far in the future autism can be prevented. In some unknown year, at some future time, newborn babies will be tested for not just their genetics, but their epigenetics, to determine what genes are turned on and off properly or improperly. I think there will be therapies to fix that early on, based on recent advances in reversing deviant epigenetic bookmarks in cancer. Epigenetic therapies will probably be the most effective therapies in the future for children. These therapies don’t really exist yet, but they’re coming.”

Dan E. Burns, Ph.D., is the father of a 25-year-old son on the autism spectrum and the author of Saving Ben: A Father’s Story of Autism. Through his new dba, Appleseed Ventures, Dan empowers parents to organize communities where their adult ASD children and friends can live, work, play, and heal.

William J. Walsh  Ph.D., is an internationally recognized expert in the field of nutritional medicine. He is president of the non-profit Walsh Research Institute in Illinois and conducts physician training programs in advanced biochemical/nutrient therapies in Australia, Norway and other countries. His book, Nutrient Power (Skyhorse Publishing), which describes an evidence-based nutrient therapy system, was recently published. He has authored numerous peer-reviewed journal articles and scientific reports, as well as been granted five patents. He has presented his experimental research at the American Psychiatric Association, the U.S. Senate, and the National Institutes of Mental Health. After earning degrees from Notre Dame and the University of Michigan, Dr. Walsh received a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Iowa State University. While working at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1970s, Dr. Walsh organized a prison volunteer program that led to studies of prisoners and ex-offenders researching the causes of their violent behavior. A collaboration with Carl C. Pfeiffer, M.D., Ph.D., a pioneer in the field of nutritional research therapy, led Dr. Walsh to the development of individualized nutrient protocols to normalize body chemistry and brain chemistry. Over the next 30 years, Dr. Walsh developed biochemical treatments for patients with behavioral disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease that are used by doctors throughout the world. Dr. Walsh has studied more than 25,000 patients with mental disorders. His accomplishments include (a) groundbreaking studies reporting reduced violent behavior following nutrient therapy, (b) the 1999 discovery of undermethylation and copper/zinc imbalances in autism, (c) the 2000 finding of metallothionein protein depletion in autism, (d) the 2007 published study linking copper overload and post-partum depression, (e) the identification of five biochemical subtypes of clinical depression, (f) the 2011 development of the Walsh Theory of Schizophrenia, and (g) the direction of the Beethoven Research Project that revealed that the composer suffered from severe lead poisoning. Dr. Walsh has conducted chemical analysis of more than 25 serial killers and mass murderers, including Charles Manson, Richard Speck, James Oliver Huberty, Patrick Sherrill and Arthur Shawcross. He has assisted medical examiners, coroners, Scotland Yard, and the FBI in these forensics studies. He has designed nutritional programs for Olympic athletes, NBA players, major league baseball players, a heavyweight boxing champion, PGA and LPGA golfers, and others. Walsh Research Institute’s current research includes studies of autism brain tissues, the role of epigenetics in mental health, oxidative stress in disease conditions, and underlying causes of bipolar disorder.