Dr. Bredesen’s laboratory focuses on identifying and understanding basic mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative process and the translation of this knowledge into effective treatments for Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. He has collaborated on the publication of more than 220 academic research papers.
He and his colleagues have identified several subtypes of Alzheimer’s disease and has developed ReCODE – reversal of cognitive decline – a protocol that offers a new approach to treatment that has reversed symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease.
Dr. Bredesen received his undergraduate degree from the California Institute of Technology and his medical degree from Duke University. He served as Resident and Chief Resident in Neurology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). He was the Founding President and CEO of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging and Adjunct Professor at UCSF.
The biggest risk factor for developing Alzheimer’s Disease? – Whether or not you have any copies of the ApoE4 gene
- Everybody has 2 copies of the ApoE gene (1 from mom, 1 from dad) – it’s either ApoE2, ApoE3, or ApoE4
- 75 million Americans have a single copy of ApoE4
- Their lifetime risk for developing Alzheimer’s Disease is about 30%
- About 7 million Americans have 2 copies of ApoE4
- If you have 2 copies, your lifetime risk of developing Alzheimer’s Disease is over 50%
- You can test your ApoE phenotype with 23andMe
In summary, the best ways to prevent Alzheimer’s Disease:
- Eat a low inflammatory diet
- Limit your exposure to mold and other mycotoxins
- Keep an eye on your copper and zinc levels
- You don’t want your copper/zinc ratio to be too high
- About a billion people on earth are deficient in zinc – you might want to supplement
- Limit your exposure to mercury
- If you eat fish, make sure it’s wild caught, not farm raised
- Eat organic to avoid toxins
- To reverse cognitive decline. Dale recommends patients:
- Follow a mild ketogenic diet
- Fast for a minimum of 12 hours each night
- Sleep is one of the ways you clear away amyloid plaques in the brain
- Using the sauna is a great way to sweat out toxins that can lead to Alzheimer’s Disease (like cadmium, mercury, and BPA)
The research of Dr Dale Bredesen, MD is consistent with the work of William Walsh, PhD. Bredesen's focus is on factors that lead to Alzheimer's Disease, Walsh is more about mood and behavior disorders throughout life. The parallels are with markers of inflammation which influence behavior throughout life and memory and congnition later in life.
In the Comprehensive Lab Panel for a typical Walsh Assessment we look at the following:
Free Copper (zinc/copper ratio, copper/ceruloplasmin ratio and total copper)
Histamine or Doctors Data Methylation Panel (when histamine is ambiguous)
Pyroluria (as a primary cause of vitamin B6 and zinc deficiency)
Dr. Bredesen recommends that all people over age 45 get a “cognoscopy.”
This is a set of blood tests risk factors associated with the three major causes of Alzheimers. Bredesen believes that we can eradicate Alzheimer's if we protect ourselves and initiate therapies as early as possible. These markers are risk factors associated with mood and behavior disorders as well as other common morbidities related to cardiovascular health, hormonal balance, gut health and immunity.
- Dr. Dale Bredesen’s ReCODE protocol evaluates 150 factors known to contribute to Alzheimer’s disease. This identifies your disease subtype or combination of subtypes, and an effective treatment protocol can be devised
While these classifications have not become widely accepted yet, Bredesen has published two papers on Alzheimer’s subtypes, based on metabolic profiling.4 These include:
- 1. Type 1, inflammatory (“hot”) Alzheimer’s: Patients present predominantly inflammatory symptoms. They have high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, reflecting a chronic inflammatory state. When the NF-ĸB part of inflammation is activated, it also alters gene transcription. Two of the genes turned “on” are beta-secretase and gamma-secretase, the latter of which cleaves APP, thereby promoting synaptoclastic processes.
- 2. Type 1.5, glycotoxic (sugar-toxic, “sweet, a mixed subtype: This is an in-between subtype that involves both inflammation and atrophy processes, due to insulin resistance and glucose-induced inflammation.
- 3. Type 2, atrophic or “cold”Alzheimer’s: This is classified as patients presenting an atrophic response. While a completely different mechanism from inflammation, it produces the same end result — it pushes APP in the direction of creating amyloid plaques and Alzheimer’s cell signaling.
- 4. Type 3, toxic (“vile”) Alzheimer’s: These are patients with toxic exposures. Many will have chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS) markers, even though most do not fit the official criteria for CIRS. “They act like CIRS patients (in their labs, not necessarily symptoms) with dementia,” Bredesen explains.
Details of Bredesen's ReCODE:
- If You’re ApoE4 Positive, Fasting Is Strongly Indicated to Avoid Alzheimer’s
- Mitochondrial Dysfunction Is at the Heart of Alzheimer’s
- The ReCODE protocol evaluates 150 different variables, including biochemistry, genetics and historical imaging, to determine which factors are most likely driving the disease.
Alzheimer’s Key Elements in Screening Tests
|Ferritin||40 to 60 ng/mL|
|GGT||<16 U/L for men and < 9 U/L for women|
|25-hydroxy vitamin D||40 to 60 ng/mL|
|High-sensitivity CRP||<0.9 mg/L|
|Fasting Insulin||< 4.5 mg/dL|
|Omega-3 index and|
Omega 6:3 ratio
|Omega-3 index > 8 %|
|TNF alpha||< 6.0|
|TSH||Less than 2.0 microunits/mL|
|Free T3||3.2-4.2 pg/mL|
|Reverse T3||<20 ng/mL|
|Free T4||1.3-1.8 ng/mL|
|Serum copper and zinc ratio||0.8-1.2|
|Serum selenium||110-150 ng/mL|
|Vitamin E (alpha tocopherol)||12-20 mcg/mL|
|Body mass index||18-25|
|ApoE4 (DNA test)||See how many alleles you have: 0, 1 or 2|
|Hemoglobin A1c||Less than 5.5|